This volume represents one of the few works that enables the reader to really experience how the category of modernism is questionable and necessary at the same time. From the activity of the most prominent English, French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, German and Russian magazines published between 1918 and 1940, a network of intense mutual exchanges, influences and contacts merges. Indeed Modernism is both a phenomenon of agency (writing) and response (reading). The spirit of modernist writers is national as much as inter-nationalistic because while modernists are open to their tradition they are also interested in their contemporaries’ activities abroad. Periodicals contribute in a decisive way to this interplay between reflection and dialogue, whereby they proved to be instrumental for the constitutional process of Modernism, especially for what concerns their gradual canonization and dismissal from their original poetics. After this initial phase marked by mutual exchanges, this volume focuses more deeply on the second phase of withdrawing and the consequential increasing difficulty about the circulation of ideas and books. The history of modernisms is the golden age of European culture and arts; it interweaves with the dark years of the totalitarianism, which ends with the Second World War catastrophe.